“International Journal of Applied and Experimental Biology” (With abbreviation - Intl. J. Appl. Exp. Biol.; IJAaEB) publishes research and review papers on all aspects of Life Sciences including Biology, Genetics, Botany, Zoology, Biotechnology, Biochemistry, Microbiology, Molecular Biology, Bioinformatics, and Medical, Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences. It aims to serve as a forum of life and medical scientists, and agricultural professionals.

Certificate of Ethical Approval

All submitted manuscripts are required to comply with the Publication Ethics Policy. According to Section 4 of the Publication Ethics Policy, the authors of studies involving testing on human/animal subjects are required to provide a certificate of approval of the Institutional Ethical Review Board/Committee (IERB/C). The board must have to certify that all human/animal subjects were handled according to the guidelines set by the relevant IERB/C or equivalent body on the format prescribed for Certificate of Ethical Approval.

Manuscript Types

  1. Original full-length research papers (Regular Papers)
  2. Review articles
  3. Short communications

Language
Manuscripts must be written in English. Authors whose native language is not English are sturdily advised to have their manuscripts read/checked by a native English speaker prior to its submittal.

Title
It should be brief and informative. Titles serve as important means for multiple information-retrieval systems, thus, avoid to use formulae and abbreviations. Use both common and complete scientific names along with citations of organisms.

Abstract
A concise and factual abstract highlighting the promising results is required. For example, it should start describing briefly the premier purpose of the research, prime results and key conclusions drawn. References are usually avoided to cite in the abstract, but if necessary, then they could be cited by mentioning only the author(s) and year(s). Also, avoid to use unnecessary non-standard abbreviations, but if necessary, then they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract.

Keywords
Number of keywords should not exceed six and they be placed soon after the abstract. Do not use abbreviations in the keywords. Avoid to repeat the words/terms already used in the title.

Abbreviations
Always define/spell out abbreviations at the first mention. Avoid to use abbreviations in the abstract, but if they are indispensable, then use the standard ones, and they must be consistent throughout the manuscript.

Introduction
Describe the background of the research undertaken by extrapolating appropriate literature. Try to include both old and latest literature. Devise a pertinent hypothesis or hypotheses addressing different aspects of your research question(s). Provide adequate objectives based on the hypothesis or research questions.

Material and Methods

Provide ample detail of all different types of materials/organisms used. Methods/protocols should be reproducible by other researchers. Methods already published or amended can be briefly described.

Results
Results should be clear and concise. All data tables and figures should be cited properly.

Discussion
This should explore the significance of the results of the work by critically analyzing the promising results and relating them to appropriate literature. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.

Author names and affiliations 

The authors' affiliation addresses be presented below the names. The address of each affiliation must contain the country name, and, if available, the e-mail address of each author be added.

Corresponding author

The address of the corresponding author should be complete in all respects, and it must contain telephone and fax numbers as well as e-mail address.

Acknowledgements
Acknowledgements should be presented in a separate section at the end of a manuscript just before the start of reference list. All individuals involved in the research work (e.g., planning of study, execution of research, providing language help, assistance in writing or proof reading of the article, etc.) should be properly acknowledged.

References

Note: Authors are strongly encouraged to follow the “Journal Instructions to Authors” for listing all references cited in the text. The accuracy of each reference must be checked against its original source.

  1. All studies cited in the text should be presented in a list of references following the whole text of the manuscript. The manuscript should be carefully checked to ensure that the spellings of author names and dates are the same in the text as in the reference list.
  2. In the text, refer to the author's name (without initial) and year of publication. Examples: "Bradshaw (2021) has exhibited that..." "This is similar to what has been reported elsewhere (Morgan, 1989)".
  3. If a reference is mentioned in the text to a manuscript written by more than two authors, the name of the first author should be used followed by "et al.". This indication, however, should not be used in the list of references. In the list, names of first author and co-authors should be fully mentioned.
  4. References cited together in the text should be arranged chronologically. The list of references should be arranged alphabetically. If an author's name in the list is also mentioned with co-authors, the following order should be used: publications of a single author, arranged according to publication dates -- publications of the same author with one co-author -- publications of the author with more than one co-author. Publications by the same author(s) in the same year should be listed as 1999a, 1999b, etc.
  5. Use the following system for arranging your references; please note the proper position of the punctuation:

For periodicals

Romero-Aranda, M.R., González-Fernández, P., Pérez-Tienda, J.R., López-Diaz, M.R., Espinosa, J., Granum, E., Traverso, J.Á., Pineda, B., Garcia-Sogo, B., Moreno, V., Asins, M.J., Belver, A. (2020). Na+ transporter HKT1;2 reduces flower Na+ content and considerably mitigates the decline in tomato fruit yields under saline conditions. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 154:341-352.

For edited symposia, special issues, etc., published in a periodical

Munns, R. (2009). Strategies for crop improvement in saline soils. In "Salinity and Water Stress: Improving Crop Efficiency" (M. Ashraf, M. Ozturk and H. R. Athar, eds.), Vol. 44, pp. 99-110. Springer, The Netherlands.

Golkar-Narenji, A., Petitte, J.N., Mozdziak, P.E. (2020).  Transgenic chicken/poultry birds: serving us for survival; Chapter 9.  In "Genomics and Biotechnological Advances in Veterinary, Poultry, and Fisheries" (Y.S. Malik, D. Barh, V. Azevedo and S.M.P. Khurana, eds.). pp. 211-221. Academic Press.

For books

Abdelly, C. (2008). "Biosaline Agriculture and High Salinity Tolerance," Birkhäuser; Springer Distributor, Basel.

For multi-author books

Bewley, J.D., Bradford, K., Hilhorst, H., Nonogaki, H. (2013). "Seeds: Physiology of Development, Germination and Dormancy," 3rd Edition. Springer Science & Business Media, New York.

Web references

As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

References in a special issue

Please ensure that the words 'Special Issue' are added to the pertinent reference(s) in the list.

References concerning unpublished data and "personal communications" should not be cited in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text.

Nomenclature and Units

Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the International System of Units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.

Authors and Editor(s) are, by general agreement, required to accept the rules governing biological nomenclature, as laid down in the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria, and the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature.

All organisms (crops, plants, insects, birds, mammals, etc.) should be mentioned by their scientific names.

For chemical nomenclature, the Conventions of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry and the official recommendations of the IUPAC-IUB Combined Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature should be followed.

Accession numbers

In Bioinformatics, accession numbers are exclusive identifiers assigned to nucleotide and protein sequences to allow trailing of different versions of that sequence record in a data repository. Authors should clearly mention the type of accession number together with the actual number, keeping in view that an error in a letter or number can result in a dead link in the online version of the article. Please use the following format: accession number type ID: xxxx (e.g., MMDB ID: 12345; PDB ID: 1TUP).

Math formulae/equations

  • Present simple formulae in the text where possible. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics.
  • Subscripts and superscripts should be clear.
  • Greek letters and other non-Roman symbols should be explained. Take a special care to show clearly the difference between zero (0) and the letter O, and between one (1) and the letter l.
  • Different levels of statistical significance are: *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 and ***P < 0.001.
  • Ions should be presented as, e.g., Mg2+, not as Mg++.
  • Isotopes should be presented accurately in the text or tables/figures and isotope number should precede the symbols, e.g., 15N.

Footnotes

Avoid to use footnotes, but if essential, then number them consecutively using superscript Arabic numbers throughout the manuscript.

Table footnotes

Footnote in a table should be used with a superscript lowercase letter.

Electronic artwork

General points

  • Lettering and sizing of self-drawn artwork should be uniform
  • Only use “Times New Roman” font in your illustrations
  • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text
  • Provide captions/legends to illustrations separately
  • Produce images near to the desired size of the printed version

Color artwork 

Artwork files should be in an acceptable format (MS Office, TIFF, or EPS files) and with high resolution.

Figure captions - Ensure that each illustration has a caption/legend. Supply captions/legends separately, not attached to the figure. A caption/legend should contain a brief title and a description of the figure/illustration. Explain all abbreviations and symbols used.

Tables – Numbering of tables in the text should be according to their sequential appearance in the text. Ensure that the data presented in tables should not be repeatedly presented elsewhere in the form of a table or a Figure within the article.

Authors’ contribution statement

It is necessary to provide a statement for contribution(s) made by all authors. This statement must be given on the style given below by selecting one of the listed activities. At least one of the authors must be designated as the scientist involved in “Conduction of experiment”. Any activity or style other than listed below is not acceptable.

  • Research superior(s): NAA.
  • Member(s) of advisory group: GHR.
  • Conceptualization and designing the study: KNT, EVS, MPL, TMK.
  • Conduction of experiment: RH, IS.
  • Moderation of laboratory activities: FDA.
  • Resource availability: MOA
  • Instrumentation and analysis: TRW.
  • Data collection, visualization and interpretation: KNT, EVS, MPL, TMK.
  • Graphical representation/visualization: AA.
  • Formal statistical analysis: GHT.
  • Preparation of initial draft: AP.
  • Review of initial draft: PG.
  • Intellectual contribution: MO and VA.
  • Proof reading and approval of the final version: KNT, EVS, MPL, TMK, MO, VA.
  • Revisions and corrections: TGH.

Plagiarism check

Before uploading to the journal e-system, the manuscript should be subjected by the authors to “Turnitin” software or any of the other similar tools for checking similarity index. Overall, the similarity index should be well below 15%. The authors are advised to strictly follow the guidelines for plagiarism check outlined by several international publishers.

Article Processing Charges (APCs)

Starting from 1st January, 2025, the articles published in IJAaEB are subject to payment of APCs as decided by the journal’s Advisory Board. All authors have to pay USD 200 for an International and Rs. 25000 for a local contribution. The payment of APCs is subject to the following terms and conditions:

  • APCs are to be paid soon after acceptance of manuscripts and before the manuscripts are transferred to the Journal Production Section for publication.
  • APCs are decided based on affiliation of first author and/or corresponding author.
    • If any of authors have a foreign address, the manuscript will be treated as an international contribution.
    • In case of dual affiliations of authors with one as foreign institution, the manuscript will be treated as an international contribution.
  • No claim of refund will be accepted once the manuscripts are assigned to “In Press” or a regular issue.
  • In case of a manuscript withdrawal request by authors after acceptance, the APCs will be returned after deduction of 50% of the total APCs as Article Handling Charges (AHC) and any transaction fee incurred on funds transfer.
  • No refund claim will be accepted in case of retraction of articles arising from plagiarism, conflict of interest or any type of action(s) taken by the journal advisory board.
  • No AHCs or no any other hidden charges are applied to the submitted manuscripts.
  • Fee waiver is applicable as follows:
    • Journal reviewers can have a waiver of 25% of APC, which can be claimed once for each reviewed manuscript
    • Editors can have a waiver of 50% of APC twice a year.

Copyright and License transfer

Soon after acceptance of a manuscript, the IJAaEB Editorial Office sends a 'Copyright form' to the corresponding author for completing and signing it properly. The document can be signed by the corresponding author on behalf of all authors of a manuscript. Please see “Open Access, Licensing & Distribution Policy” of IJAaEB for guidelines.